Policy Analysis | July 2020

Trade in the SLC Region Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

Roger Moore

The COVID-19 pandemic upended global economic activity in the first quarter of 2020. Although the long-term impact of the pandemic remains unknown, the profound economic shocks experienced beginning in March, with widespread business closures and restrictions on movement, are expected to reverberate into 2021 and, possibly, beyond. In April, at the height of the pandemic, the World Trade Organization predicted that international trade could contract anywhere between 13 percent and 32 percent in 2020, as the flow of goods ground to a halt.1

By highlighting export and import data, as reported monthly by the U.S. Census Bureau, this SLC Policy Analysis depicts how the pandemic has impacted the U.S. economy. The data includes:

  1. Monthly changes in imports and exports from August 2019 through the end of the year;
  2. Monthly changes in imports and exports from the beginning of 2020 until the most recent month for which data is available, currently May 2020; and
  3. Year-over-year changes in imports and exports during the most recent month for which data is available, currently May 2020.

Importantly, the monthly data provided by the Census Bureau only includes commodities. Exports and imports of services – such as travel and transportation, telecommunications, financial services and cultural activities, to name a few – are not included in the monthly data sets. Services account for a significant share of overall U.S. economic activity and have similarly been affected by the coronavirus-induced economic downturn.2

The Census Bureau data shows how states' trading patterns have been affected by the pandemic and during the past year, when international trade already was in a precarious position due to ongoing disputes between the United States and major trading partners. In fact, exports decreased nationally in four of the final five months of 2019, while imports decreased in three of the five months (see Tables 1 and 2).

However, despite these tensions, the overall economic outlook remained positive for much of the South, with several SLC states experiencing growth in both exports and imports during the final five months of 2019, as well as the first two months of 2020. For all 50 states, exports increased by 2.1 percent between January and February, followed by an additional 2.1 percent growth between February and March. Meanwhile, imports decreased by 9.2 percent between January and February, before rebounding with an increase of 9.2 percent between February and March. Beginning in April, trading activity contracted sharply, with national exports and imports decreasing by 29.2 percent and 14.8 percent, respectively, over March. Athdditional reductions, albeit less severe, continued the following month.

Table 1
U.S. Exports: August 2019 - January 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State Aug. Sep.
Monthly Change
Oct.
Monthly Change
Nov.
Monthly Change
Dec.
Monthly Change
Jan.
Monthly Change
Alabama $1,710.2 $1,880.0 9.9% $2,027.8 7.9% $1,914.3 -5.6% $1,848.9 -3.4% $1,490.5 -19.4%
Alaska $758.4 $876.2 15.5% $424.6 -51.5% $288.2 -32.1% $221.3 -23.2% $249.9 12.9%
Arizona $2,092.6 $2,210.7 5.6% $2,197.6 -0.6% $1,951.0 -11.2% $2,009.0 3.0% $1,731.3 -13.8%
Arkansas $491.8 $437.8 -11.0% $571.5 30.6% $533.9 -6.6% $647.1 21.2% $592.2 -8.5%
California $15,013.7 $13,675.4 -8.9% $15,460.4 13.1% $14,774.8 -4.4% $13,995.0 -5.3% $13,452.2 -3.9%
Colorado $729.4 $659.9 -9.5% $703.3 6.6% $676.2 -3.9% $652.2 -3.5% $1,001.2 53.5%
Connecticut $1,220.4 $1,393.3 14.2% $1,281.1 -8.0% $1,353.7 5.7% $1,473.8 8.9% $1,429.6 -3.0%
Delaware $373.6 $322.6 -13.6% $302.5 -6.2% $349.6 15.6% $411.8 17.8% $277.2 -32.7%
Florida $4,785.4 $4,401.7 -8.0% $4,879.2 10.8% $4,869.5 -0.2% $4,707.4 -3.3% $4,469.0 -5.1%
Georgia $3,318.0 $3,627.2 9.3% $3,394.8 -6.4% $3,286.6 -3.2% $3,522.1 7.2% $3,083.8 -12.4%
Hawaii $60.3 $21.0 -65.2% $41.9 99.6% $29.7 -29.2% $20.2 -31.8% $28.9 42.7%
Idaho $270.4 $257.3 -4.8% $259.8 1.0% $235.6 -9.3% $229.0 -2.8% $255.8 11.7%
Illinois $4,923.8 $4,881.3 -0.9% $5,146.3 5.4% $4,805.9 -6.6% $4,477.7 -6.8% $4,640.8 3.6%
Indiana $3,477.4 $3,145.6 -9.5% $3,217.3 2.3% $3,281.4 2.0% $2,800.9 -14.6% $3,052.3 9.0%
Iowa $1,038.9 $947.5 -8.8% $1,110.9 17.2% $1,025.9 -7.6% $1,120.0 9.2% $1,041.8 -7.0%
Kansas $973.1 $1,050.8 8.0% $970.2 -7.7% $939.8 -3.1% $955.4 1.7% $941.9 -1.4%
Kentucky $2,857.4 $2,948.9 3.2% $2,966.2 0.6% $2,597.4 -12.4% $2,789.7 7.4% $2,477.8 -11.2%
Louisiana $5,528.5 $5,116.4 -7.5% $5,467.5 6.9% $5,944.4 8.7% $5,834.8 -1.8% $5,622.9 -3.6%
Maine $310.0 $236.0 -23.9% $301.1 27.6% $231.2 -23.2% $199.1 -13.9% $230.5 15.8%
Maryland $1,085.0 $1,072.9 -1.1% $1,267.1 18.1% $1,027.4 -18.9% $1,180.2 14.9% $1,088.9 -7.7%
Massachusetts $2,334.6 $2,178.2 -6.7% $2,283.7 4.8% $2,239.8 -1.9% $2,023.5 -9.7% $2,128.4 5.2%
Michigan $4,826.5 $4,586.4 -5.0% $4,648.0 1.3% $4,286.0 -7.8% $4,124.2 -3.8% $4,176.2 1.3%
Minnesota $1,934.9 $1,834.4 -5.2% $1,905.4 3.9% $1,860.8 -2.3% $1,782.6 -4.2% $1,843.3 3.4%
Mississippi $1,044.6 $950.1 -9.0% $982.8 3.4% $907.5 -7.7% $948.1 4.5% $990.1 4.4%
Missouri $1,100.2 $1,062.8 -3.4% $1,067.1 0.4% $1,075.3 0.8% $1,074.3 -0.1% $920.8 -14.3%
Montana $159.5 $160.7 0.8% $179.2 11.5% $105.3 -41.2% $107.0 1.6% $113.5 6.0%
Nebraska $620.1 $525.7 -15.2% $635.2 20.8% $597.0 -6.0% $572.7 -4.1% $571.2 -0.3%
Nevada $700.2 $823.0 17.5% $795.1 -3.4% $896.2 12.7% $754.4 -15.8% $779.4 3.3%
New Hampshire $556.3 $469.7 -15.6% $541.9 15.4% $486.3 -10.3% $520.8 7.1% $440.7 -15.4%
New Jersey $3,072.2 $2,843.8 -7.4% $3,250.3 14.3% $2,968.8 -8.7% $2,645.8 -10.9% $3,016.7 14.0%
New Mexico $438.5 $416.5 -5.0% $531.3 27.6% $650.1 22.4% $334.7 -48.5% $361.4 8.0%
New York $5,432.8 $6,417.7 18.1% $5,953.7 -7.2% $6,464.1 8.6% $6,135.1 -5.1% $5,600.6 -8.7%
North Carolina $2,784.9 $2,759.8 -0.9% $3,156.7 14.4% $2,710.7 -14.1% $2,622.3 -3.3% $2,443.0 -6.8%
North Dakota $569.1 $582.2 2.3% $608.6 4.5% $637.8 4.8% $606.5 -4.9% $582.6 -3.9%
Ohio $4,642.2 $4,353.4 -6.2% $4,522.6 3.9% $4,175.4 -7.7% $4,319.1 3.4% $4,090.1 -5.3%
Oklahoma $551.4 $492.1 -10.8% $497.0 1.0% $499.8 0.6% $468.2 -6.3% $463.8 -0.9%
Oregon $1,953.8 $1,767.3 -9.5% $1,899.0 7.5% $1,961.7 3.3% $1,978.5 0.9% $1,920.0 -3.0%
Pennsylvania $3,695.9 $3,552.1 -3.9% $3,522.7 -0.8% $3,242.4 -8.0% $3,306.4 2.0% $3,213.2 -2.8%
Rhode Island $283.2 $228.9 -19.2% $265.9 16.2% $256.3 -3.6% $184.0 -28.2% $255.2 38.6%
South Carolina $3,587.1 $3,968.7 10.6% $3,829.9 -3.5% $3,705.2 -3.3% $3,294.1 -11.1% $2,593.8 -21.3%
South Dakota $131.6 $99.4 -24.5% $118.6 19.3% $114.6 -3.4% $120.0 4.7% $118.6 -1.1%
Tennessee $2,737.7 $2,512.1 -8.2% $2,689.5 7.1% $2,438.0 -9.3% $2,328.9 -4.5% $2,530.0 8.6%
Texas $27,349.3 $26,793.9 -2.0% $29,433.9 9.9% $27,594.5 -6.2% $28,842.1 4.5% $28,138.2 -2.4%
Utah $1,606.3 $1,427.5 -11.1% $1,342.2 -6.0% $1,606.1 19.7% $1,548.6 -3.6% $1,304.1 -15.8%
Vermont $226.5 $249.6 10.2% $279.1 11.8% $269.2 -3.5% $244.0 -9.3% $201.7 -17.3%
Virginia $1,619.1 $1,370.2 -15.4% $1,458.2 6.4% $1,389.5 -4.7% $1,397.7 0.6% $1,390.1 -0.5%
Washington $4,151.6 $4,138.1 -0.3% $4,880.2 17.9% $4,904.7 0.5% $6,075.3 23.9% $3,398.7 -44.1%
West Virginia $494.8 $454.0 -8.2% $489.5 7.8% $490.8 0.3% $459.2 -6.4% $403.3 -12.2%
Wisconsin $1,810.6 $1,808.6 -0.1% $1,856.5 2.6% $1,819.8 -2.0% $1,671.2 -8.2% $1,637.1 -2.0%
Wyoming $126.4 $103.9 -17.8% $123.3 18.7% $134.9 9.4% $151.7 12.5% $116.8 -23.0%
Total $131,559.9 $128,093.3 -2.6% $135,738.5 6.0% $130,605.1 -3.8% $129,736.5 -0.7% $122,901.3 -5.3%
Table 2
U.S. Imports: August 2019 - January 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State Aug. Sep.
Monthly Change
Oct.
Monthly Change
Nov.
Monthly Change
Dec.
Monthly Change
Jan.
Monthly Change
Alabama $2,479.2 $2,379.9 -4.0% $2,546.2 7.0% $2,129.2 -16.4% $2,396.6 12.6% $2,373.1 -1.0%
Alaska $226.8 $159.4 -29.7% $210.9 32.3% $165.7 -21.4% $273.3 65.0% $182.4 -33.3%
Arizona $2,381.7 $2,344.6 -1.6% $2,704.5 15.4% $2,359.0 -12.8% $2,310.4 -2.1% $2,473.8 7.1%
Arkansas $769.9 $806.2 4.7% $821.5 1.9% $736.6 -10.3% $638.0 -13.4% $731.2 14.6%
California $35,242.0 $34,351.7 -2.5% $36,521.3 6.3% $33,936.8 -7.1% $33,183.5 -2.2% $31,991.5 -3.6%
Colorado $1,090.3 $1,114.6 2.2% $1,205.7 8.2% $1,035.0 -14.2% $1,068.8 3.3% $1,069.3 0.0%
Connecticut $1,638.9 $1,777.6 8.5% $1,802.1 1.4% $1,678.9 -6.8% $1,955.4 16.5% $1,522.0 -22.2%
Delaware $723.8 $685.5 -5.3% $976.0 42.4% $937.2 -4.0% $666.7 -28.9% $690.4 3.6%
Florida $6,595.4 $6,552.2 -0.7% $6,848.5 4.5% $6,573.2 -4.0% $6,780.9 3.2% $7,551.7 11.4%
Georgia $8,921.6 $8,423.1 -5.6% $8,889.2 5.5% $7,880.9 -11.3% $8,278.8 5.0% $8,235.7 -0.5%
Hawaii $412.7 $328.1 -20.5% $421.5 28.5% $282.5 -33.0% $224.0 -20.7% $169.2 -24.5%
Idaho $419.6 $381.5 -9.1% $345.2 -9.5% $388.7 12.6% $364.5 -6.2% $414.4 13.7%
Illinois $13,761.3 $15,157.3 10.1% $15,841.8 4.5% $13,620.7 -14.0% $13,423.8 -1.4% $13,135.4 -2.1%
Indiana $4,877.7 $5,243.4 7.5% $6,145.5 17.2% $5,538.1 -9.9% $5,431.1 -1.9% $5,288.4 -2.6%
Iowa $872.7 $845.5 -3.1% $859.0 1.6% $738.4 -14.0% $695.1 -5.9% $732.4 5.4%
Kansas $1,054.4 $978.2 -7.2% $1,055.3 7.9% $930.5 -11.8% $959.8 3.1% $957.8 -0.2%
Kentucky $4,851.0 $4,617.4 -4.8% $5,186.4 12.3% $4,609.3 -11.1% $4,894.7 6.2% $4,279.6 -12.6%
Louisiana $2,341.6 $2,200.7 -6.0% $2,125.6 -3.4% $2,137.0 0.5% $2,092.0 -2.1% $2,298.1 9.9%
Maine $419.2 $425.1 1.4% $503.8 18.5% $482.0 -4.3% $487.8 1.2% $526.0 7.8%
Maryland $2,878.9 $2,814.3 -2.2% $3,148.7 11.9% $2,811.1 -10.7% $3,181.5 13.2% $2,435.0 -23.5%
Massachusetts $3,195.1 $3,121.7 -2.3% $3,329.4 6.7% $2,845.5 -14.5% $3,104.8 9.1% $2,751.3 -11.4%
Michigan $12,755.0 $11,585.7 -9.2% $11,416.1 -1.5% $11,535.2 1.0% $11,558.7 0.2% $10,146.8 -12.2%
Minnesota $2,584.1 $2,296.8 -11.1% $2,533.9 10.3% $2,324.7 -8.3% $2,289.5 -1.5% $2,310.8 0.9%
Mississippi $1,459.7 $1,345.5 -7.8% $1,365.1 1.5% $1,249.0 -8.5% $1,400.5 12.1% $1,314.3 -6.2%
Missouri $1,802.5 $1,612.0 -10.6% $1,733.6 7.5% $1,440.1 -16.9% $1,594.7 10.7% $1,743.6 9.3%
Montana $474.3 $425.9 -10.2% $386.6 -9.2% $337.0 -12.8% $346.8 2.9% $410.2 18.3%
Nebraska $343.1 $402.4 17.3% $331.6 -17.6% $286.4 -13.6% $312.1 9.0% $329.3 5.5%
Nevada $888.6 $868.1 -2.3% $804.8 -7.3% $925.8 15.0% $967.3 4.5% $934.3 -3.4%
New Hampshire $752.8 $728.6 -3.2% $782.5 7.4% $706.8 -9.7% $703.6 -0.5% $688.5 -2.1%
New Jersey $10,723.8 $9,809.4 -8.5% $10,773.2 9.8% $9,312.6 -13.6% $10,117.9 8.6% $9,520.6 -5.9%
New Mexico $356.0 $364.1 2.3% $325.6 -10.6% $363.4 11.6% $383.8 5.6% $396.1 3.2%
New York $11,078.6 $10,756.7 -2.9% $12,948.1 20.4% $10,506.3 -18.9% $11,352.3 8.1% $9,825.7 -13.4%
North Carolina $6,180.6 $5,263.0 -14.8% $5,021.8 -4.6% $4,471.9 -11.0% $5,113.1 14.3% $5,258.7 2.8%
North Dakota $275.0 $265.8 -3.3% $242.2 -8.9% $215.1 -11.2% $258.9 20.3% $271.4 4.8%
Ohio $5,973.9 $5,997.6 0.4% $5,981.7 -0.3% $5,611.7 -6.2% $5,490.3 -2.2% $5,311.4 -3.3%
Oklahoma $964.4 $1,002.5 4.0% $1,069.4 6.7% $857.1 -19.9% $1,006.7 17.5% $1,099.7 9.2%
Oregon $1,447.9 $1,396.9 -3.5% $1,495.3 7.0% $1,414.9 -5.4% $1,548.0 9.4% $1,327.9 -14.2%
Pennsylvania $7,516.1 $6,868.7 -8.6% $7,439.1 8.3% $7,258.8 -2.4% $7,361.4 1.4% $7,505.1 2.0%
Rhode Island $998.5 $967.7 -3.1% $906.9 -6.3% $905.6 -0.1% $907.7 0.2% $820.8 -9.6%
South Carolina $3,852.8 $3,497.5 -9.2% $3,910.6 11.8% $3,361.2 -14.0% $3,155.1 -6.1% $3,318.7 5.2%
South Dakota $101.3 $92.9 -8.3% $100.2 7.8% $83.9 -16.3% $83.2 -0.8% $81.3 -2.3%
Tennessee $7,952.3 $7,574.7 -4.7% $7,781.3 2.7% $7,381.0 -5.1% $7,337.6 -0.6% $6,820.7 -7.0%
Texas $26,053.3 $23,403.6 -10.2% $24,591.5 5.1% $22,240.5 -9.6% $22,449.7 0.9% $22,807.3 1.6%
Utah $1,366.8 $1,266.6 -7.3% $1,362.0 7.5% $1,272.8 -6.5% $1,404.1 10.3% $1,227.9 -12.6%
Vermont $316.9 $276.3 -12.8% $274.5 -0.6% $248.7 -9.4% $264.1 6.2% $280.8 6.3%
Virginia $2,545.3 $2,617.5 2.8% $2,677.3 2.3% $2,514.1 -6.1% $2,484.2 -1.2% $2,464.8 -0.8%
Washington $5,067.5 $4,721.4 -6.8% $4,800.3 1.7% $4,429.8 -7.7% $4,330.6 -2.2% $4,040.7 -6.7%
West Virginia $321.0 $306.4 -4.5% $257.8 -15.9% $269.0 4.3% $288.1 7.1% $260.6 -9.5%
Wisconsin $2,647.6 $2,544.2 -3.9% $2,782.4 9.4% $2,224.6 -20.0% $2,197.5 -1.2% $2,141.4 -2.6%
Wyoming $112.6 $133.1 18.2% $93.6 -29.7% $83.4 -10.9% $92.6 11.1% $101.9 10.1%
U.S. Total $212,066.2 $203,099.5 -4.2% $215,677.2 6.2% $195,647.6 -9.3% $199,211.8 1.8% $192,570.4 -3.3%

Exports

At the beginning of the year, between January and February, exports increased in nine of the SLC states, including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. Similarly, between February and March, exports increased in 11 of the 15 SLC states, but was lackluster for Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. These figures indicate strong economic activity across much, if not all, of the South at the beginning of 2020.

However, the impact of COVID-19, and the subsequent contraction in business activity, led to sharp reductions in every SLC state. Between March and April, exports decreased from a low of 16.2 percent in Oklahoma, to a high of 59.8 percent in South Carolina. Eleven of the 15 states experienced decreases greater than the national average of 29.2 percent between March and April. The reduction in exports continued the following month, though less precipitously, with 12 of the 15 states experiencing decreases between April and May, from a low of 3.0 percent in Oklahoma, to a high of 22.7 percent in Alabama. Notably, exports increased between April and May in three SLC states: Arkansas, Florida and Georgia. Since the beginning of the year, exports have declined by at least 20 percent in 11 of the 15 SLC states. The remaining states experienced decreases between 8.1 percent and 15.9 percent (see Table 3).

In May 2020, exports in all 15 SLC states declined significantly when compared to the same period in 2019. Year-over-year exports fell the sharpest in South Carolina, with a 67.7 percent reduction, the highest nationally, followed by Alabama, at 54.9 percent. Meanwhile, Oklahoma and Georgia experienced the smallest year-over-year decreases, at 22.7 percent and 23.2 percent, respectively. Compared to the same period in 2019, 10 SLC states were among the top 20 nationally in May 2020, with the largest reduction in exports (see Table 4).

Table 3
U.S. Exports: January 2020 - May 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State Jan. Feb.
Monthly Change
Mar.
Monthly Change
Apr.
Monthly Change
May
Monthly Change
Jan. - May Change
Alabama $1,490.5 $1,563.3 4.9% $1,937.7 23.9% $1,125.1 -41.9% $869.7 -22.7% -41.7%
Alaska $249.9 $234.7 -6.1% $390.3 66.3% $398.9 2.2% $281.0 -29.6% 12.5%
Arizona $1,731.3 $1,901.2 9.8% $2,043.5 7.5% $1,306.1 -36.1% $1,482.3 13.5% -14.4%
Arkansas $592.2 $363.0 -38.7% $535.9 47.6% $371.3 -30.7% $377.0 1.5% -36.3%
California $13,452.2 $14,178.4 5.4% $13,565.8 -4.3% $10,406.3 -23.3% $10,488.4 0.8% -22.0%
Colorado $1,001.2 $815.4 -18.6% $663.2 -18.7% $526.7 -20.6% $476.8 -9.5% -52.4%
Connecticut $1,429.6 $1,281.9 -10.3% $1,437.0 12.1% $1,079.7 -24.9% $1,007.8 -6.7% -29.5%
Delaware $277.2 $283.4 2.2% $372.5 31.5% $289.0 -22.4% $253.2 -12.4% -8.7%
Florida $4,469.0 $4,671.6 4.5% $4,288.2 -8.2% $3,008.8 -29.8% $3,029.7 0.7% -32.2%
Georgia $3,083.8 $3,247.7 5.3% $3,849.8 18.5% $2,511.5 -34.8% $2,834.1 12.8% -8.1%
Hawaii $28.9 $38.6 33.7% $20.9 -45.7% $11.0 -47.3% $31.4 184.6% 8.8%
Idaho $255.8 $248.9 -2.7% $298.5 19.9% $257.6 -13.7% $253.8 -1.5% -0.8%
Illinois $4,640.8 $4,791.4 3.2% $4,885.4 2.0% $3,690.1 -24.5% $3,806.6 3.2% -18.0%
Indiana $3,052.3 $3,111.0 1.9% $3,342.1 7.4% $2,135.1 -36.1% $2,116.1 -0.9% -30.7%
Iowa $1,041.8 $1,032.1 -0.9% $1,243.6 20.5% $1,153.7 -7.2% $964.3 -16.4% -7.4%
Kansas $941.9 $911.5 -3.2% $990.4 8.7% $677.5 -31.6% $664.2 -2.0% -29.5%
Kentucky $2,477.8 $2,367.9 -4.4% $2,928.6 23.7% $1,417.6 -51.6% $1,381.7 -2.5% -44.2%
Louisiana $5,622.9 $5,161.1 -8.2% $5,273.9 2.2% $4,131.3 -21.7% $3,691.2 -10.7% -34.4%
Maine $230.5 $193.6 -16.0% $197.9 2.2% $181.7 -8.2% $131.1 -27.8% -43.1%
Maryland $1,088.9 $1,087.7 -0.1% $1,150.9 5.8% $925.4 -19.6% $878.8 -5.0% -19.3%
Massachusetts $2,128.4 $2,133.6 0.2% $2,186.3 2.5% $1,800.5 -17.6% $1,710.9 -5.0% -19.6%
Michigan $4,176.2 $4,462.1 6.8% $4,308.0 -3.5% $1,929.9 -55.2% $1,838.6 -4.7% -56.0%
Minnesota $1,843.3 $1,850.5 0.4% $1,952.7 5.5% $1,602.6 -17.9% $1,505.6 -6.1% -18.3%
Mississippi $990.1 $980.9 -0.9% $1,101.2 12.3% $742.8 -32.5% $664.3 -10.6% -32.9%
Missouri $920.8 $1,208.4 31.2% $1,265.5 4.7% $862.8 -31.8% $782.8 -9.3% -15.0%
Montana $113.5 $116.1 2.3% $109.2 -5.9% $96.1 -12.0% $101.3 5.4% -10.7%
Nebraska $571.2 $634.0 11.0% $654.8 3.3% $566.0 -13.6% $578.8 2.3% 1.3%
Nevada $779.4 $857.5 10.0% $916.4 6.9% $856.8 -6.5% $839.5 -2.0% 7.7%
New Hampshire $440.7 $469.0 6.4% $479.7 2.3% $463.6 -3.4% $416.6 -10.1% -5.5%
New Jersey $3,016.7 $3,346.9 10.9% $3,366.5 0.6% $2,364.1 -29.8% $2,526.1 6.9% -16.3%
New Mexico $361.4 $356.8 -1.3% $351.8 -1.4% $333.1 -5.3% $242.3 -27.3% -33.0%
New York $5,600.6 $5,786.6 3.3% $4,992.2 -13.7% $3,621.4 -27.5% $3,792.7 4.7% -32.3%
North Carolina $2,443.0 $2,617.8 7.2% $2,844.6 8.7% $2,057.5 -27.7% $1,896.8 -7.8% -22.4%
North Dakota $582.6 $648.9 11.4% $595.3 -8.3% $417.7 -29.8% $280.9 -32.8% -51.8%
Ohio $4,090.1 $4,153.9 1.6% $4,487.0 8.0% $2,488.2 -44.5% $2,545.6 2.3% -37.8%
Oklahoma $463.8 $550.7 18.7% $510.3 -7.3% $427.4 -16.2% $414.8 -3.0% -10.6%
Oregon $1,920.0 $1,988.7 3.6% $2,085.2 4.9% $1,858.8 -10.9% $1,968.5 5.9% 2.5%
Pennsylvania $3,213.2 $3,187.4 -0.8% $3,486.0 9.4% $2,612.1 -25.1% $2,624.1 0.5% -18.3%
Rhode Island $255.2 $204.4 -19.9% $215.6 5.5% $138.2 -35.9% $155.5 12.5% -39.1%
South Carolina $2,593.8 $2,973.8 14.6% $3,668.1 23.3% $1,475.5 -59.8% $1,234.7 -16.3% -52.4%
South Dakota $118.6 $114.5 -3.5% $143.6 25.4% $112.6 -21.6% $82.1 -27.1% -30.8%
Tennessee $2,530.0 $2,607.9 3.1% $2,606.1 -0.1% $1,846.2 -29.2% $1,679.2 -9.0% -33.6%
Texas $28,138.2 $27,397.2 -2.6% $26,945.2 -1.6% $18,964.3 -29.6% $15,802.1 -16.7% -43.8%
Utah $1,304.1 $1,536.1 17.8% $1,432.7 -6.7% $1,421.3 -0.8% $1,204.1 -15.3% -7.7%
Vermont $201.7 $204.1 1.2% $201.4 -1.3% $183.9 -8.7% $172.1 -6.4% -14.7%
Virginia $1,390.1 $1,453.8 4.6% $1,505.4 3.6% $1,243.8 -17.4% $1,169.1 -6.0% -15.9%
Washington $3,398.7 $3,933.3 15.7% $3,711.2 -5.6% $2,829.7 -23.8% $2,781.6 -1.7% -18.2%
West Virginia $403.3 $400.2 -0.8% $498.8 24.6% $341.9 -31.5% $303.7 -11.2% -24.7%
Wisconsin $1,637.1 $1,729.8 5.7% $2,041.3 18.0% $1,422.5 -30.3% $1,408.0 -1.0% -14.0%
Wyoming $116.8 $134.4 15.0% $114.0 -15.1% $95.3 -16.5% $98.2 3.1% -15.9%
Total $122,901.3 $125,523.4 2.1% $128,191.9 2.1% $90,781.1 -29.2% $85,840.1 -5.4% -30.2%
Table 4
U.S. Exports: May 2019 - May 2020
Year-over-Year (in millions $ USD)
State May 2019 May 2020
Percent Change
May 2019 /
May 2020
South Carolina $3,821.9 $1,234.7 -67.7%
Michigan $5,143.9 $1,838.6 -64.3%
Alabama $1,930.4 $869.7 -54.9%
North Dakota $614.0 $280.9 -54.3%
Kentucky $2,705.7 $1,381.7 -48.9%
Ohio $4,770.2 $2,545.6 -46.6%
New York $6,820.2 $3,792.7 -44.4%
Texas $28,202.6 $15,802.1 -44.0%
Maine $226.7 $131.1 -42.2%
West Virginia $518.7 $303.7 -41.5%
Arkansas $624.7 $377.0 -39.6%
Delaware $417.6 $253.2 -39.4%
Indiana $3,486.6 $2,116.1 -39.3%
Mississippi $1,086.2 $664.3 -38.8%
Tennessee $2,729.3 $1,679.2 -38.5%
Florida $4,864.3 $3,029.7 -37.7%
Washington $4,407.1 $2,781.6 -36.9%
Kansas $1,048.6 $664.2 -36.7%
New Mexico $371.0 $242.3 -34.7%
North Carolina $2,820.2 $1,896.8 -32.7%
California $15,430.1 $10,488.4 -32.0%
Pennsylvania $3,811.8 $2,624.1 -31.2%
Missouri $1,135.5 $782.8 -31.1%
Virginia $1,659.0 $1,169.1 -29.5%
Vermont $244.2 $172.1 -29.5%
Arizona $2,093.3 $1,482.3 -29.2%
Colorado $672.3 $476.8 -29.1%
Louisiana $5,120.6 $3,691.2 -27.9%
Illinois $5,270.9 $3,806.6 -27.8%
Rhode Island $214.5 $155.5 -27.5%
South Dakota $113.1 $82.1 -27.4%
Montana $137.3 $101.3 -26.2%
Wisconsin $1,876.9 $1,408.0 -25.0%
Massachusetts $2,278.7 $1,710.9 -24.9%
Georgia $3,689.9 $2,834.1 -23.2%
Oklahoma $536.3 $414.8 -22.7%
Iowa $1,232.9 $964.3 -21.8%
Connecticut $1,286.7 $1,007.8 -21.7%
Minnesota $1,885.3 $1,505.6 -20.1%
New Jersey $3,140.8 $2,526.1 -19.6%
Maryland $1,047.1 $878.8 -16.1%
Nebraska $688.5 $578.8 -15.9%
Wyoming $114.7 $98.2 -14.4%
New Hampshire $460.7 $416.6 -9.6%
Idaho $278.9 $253.8 -9.0%
Utah $1,314.7 $1,204.1 -8.4%
Oregon $2,108.8 $1,968.5 -6.7%
Hawaii $30.5 $31.4 2.9%
Alaska $240.9 $281.0 16.6%
Nevada $686.0 $839.5 22.4%
U.S. Average -29.0%

Imports

Unlike exports, imports decreased across much of the region at the beginning of 2020. Between January and February, imports declined in 13 of the 15 SLC states, with South Carolina and West Virginia the only states experiencing growth during the period. However, the following month, between February and March, imports increased in 11 of the 15 states, including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. 

Imports declined significantly beginning in April, just as they did for exports, with 14 of the 15 SLC states experiencing reductions, from a low of 6.2 percent in Virginia, to 35.1 percent in West Virginia. Arkansas was the outlier during this period, charting an impressive growth of 10.6 percent. Among the 14 SLC states with a reduction in imports between March and April, nine experienced reductions greater than the national average of 14.8 percent. The following month, between April and May, 10 states experienced additional reductions in imports, while five – Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana and Missouri – experienced growth, from a modest 0.2 percent in Oklahoma, to a more robust 14.2 percent in Louisiana. Since the beginning of the year, imports have declined by at least 20 percent in 11 of the 15 SLC states. The remaining states experienced decreases between 8.2 percent and 19.3 percent (see Table 5).

All 15 SLC states experienced steep declines in year-over-year imports in May 2020, though less significantly than the annual decreases in exports. Oklahoma was the most affected state in the region, with imports dropping by 45.8 percent in May 2020, when compared to the same period in 2019, followed by Louisiana at 44.1 percent. By comparison, annual imports declined by 12.4 percent in North Carolina, the best-performing state in the region during this period. Compared to the same period in 2019, seven SLC states were among the top 20 nationally in May 2020, with the largest reduction in imports (see Table 6).

Table 5
U.S. Imports: January 2020 - May 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State Jan. Feb.
Monthly Change
Mar.
Monthly Change
Apr.
Monthly Change
May
Monthly Change
Jan. - May Change
Alabama $2,373.1 $2,100.2 -11.5% $2,200.5 4.8% $1,590.1 -27.7% $1,594.9 0.3% -32.8%
Alaska $182.4 $181.9 -0.3% $209.9 15.4% $137.5 -34.5% $167.3 21.7% -8.3%
Arizona $2,473.8 $2,252.9 -8.9% $2,202.9 -2.2% $1,791.3 -18.7% $2,126.4 18.7% -14.0%
Arkansas $731.2 $677.5 -7.3% $682.4 0.7% $754.8 10.6% $590.1 -21.8% -19.3%
California $31,991.5 $26,574.0 -16.9% $28,813.0 8.4% $26,603.5 -7.7% $27,191.5 2.2% -15.0%
Colorado $1,069.3 $954.1 -10.8% $1,011.6 6.0% $809.2 -20.0% $720.8 -10.9% -32.6%
Connecticut $1,522.0 $1,379.1 -9.4% $1,945.4 41.1% $1,339.3 -31.2% $1,378.6 2.9% -9.4%
Delaware $690.4 $667.3 -3.3% $842.7 26.3% $806.9 -4.2% $508.4 -37.0% -26.4%
Florida $7,551.7 $6,431.9 -14.8% $6,685.4 3.9% $4,568.7 -31.7% $5,069.6 11.0% -32.9%
Georgia $8,235.7 $7,336.2 -10.9% $8,405.7 14.6% $7,613.2 -9.4% $6,858.0 -9.9% -16.7%
Hawaii $169.2 $277.5 64.0% $239.8 -13.6% $99.8 -58.4% $83.9 -15.9% -50.4%
Idaho $414.4 $413.4 -0.2% $385.6 -6.7% $407.7 5.7% $594.4 45.8% 43.4%
Illinois $13,135.4 $10,593.1 -19.4% $13,003.9 22.8% $11,658.4 -10.3% $10,877.8 -6.7% -17.2%
Indiana $5,288.4 $4,567.0 -13.6% $5,639.6 23.5% $5,161.1 -8.5% $5,268.9 2.1% -0.4%
Iowa $732.4 $661.2 -9.7% $829.5 25.4% $676.2 -18.5% $654.8 -3.2% -10.6%
Kansas $957.8 $856.6 -10.6% $962.5 12.4% $850.8 -11.6% $816.1 -4.1% -14.8%
Kentucky $4,279.6 $4,018.0 -6.1% $4,727.0 17.6% $3,924.4 -17.0% $3,930.0 0.1% -8.2%
Louisiana $2,298.1 $1,980.8 -13.8% $2,013.4 1.6% $1,491.5 -25.9% $1,702.6 14.2% -25.9%
Maine $526.0 $424.7 -19.3% $355.6 -16.3% $283.3 -20.3% $328.5 15.9% -37.6%
Maryland $2,435.0 $2,423.3 -0.5% $3,038.9 25.4% $2,159.8 -28.9% $1,784.1 -17.4% -26.7%
Massachusetts $2,751.3 $2,704.2 -1.7% $2,812.9 4.0% $2,546.9 -9.5% $3,013.8 18.3% 9.5%
Michigan $10,146.8 $10,958.1 8.0% $10,892.9 -0.6% $4,372.3 -59.9% $3,565.1 -18.5% -64.9%
Minnesota $2,310.8 $2,033.7 -12.0% $2,098.4 3.2% $1,826.3 -13.0% $1,827.2 0.0% -20.9%
Mississippi $1,314.3 $1,305.6 -0.7% $1,231.4 -5.7% $1,079.6 -12.3% $998.4 -7.5% -24.0%
Missouri $1,743.6 $1,463.9 -16.0% $1,478.8 1.0% $1,264.4 -14.5% $1,290.0 2.0% -26.0%
Montana $410.2 $333.0 -18.8% $334.1 0.3% $219.7 -34.2% $222.7 1.4% -45.7%
Nebraska $329.3 $310.8 -5.6% $304.9 -1.9% $297.7 -2.4% $276.9 -7.0% -15.9%
Nevada $934.3 $878.2 -6.0% $1,312.1 49.4% $953.4 -27.3% $999.9 4.9% 7.0%
New Hampshire $688.5 $739.7 7.4% $705.8 -4.6% $497.2 -29.6% $445.5 -10.4% -35.3%
New Jersey $9,520.6 $9,605.4 0.9% $9,496.7 -1.1% $7,693.3 -19.0% $7,272.5 -5.5% -23.6%
New Mexico $396.1 $330.6 -16.5% $347.1 5.0% $289.3 -16.7% $286.3 -1.0% -27.7%
New York $9,825.7 $9,045.6 -7.9% $11,185.6 23.7% $16,551.6 48.0% $19,194.2 16.0% 95.3%
North Carolina $5,258.7 $4,200.3 -20.1% $5,595.7 33.2% $4,148.6 -25.9% $4,099.5 -1.2% -22.0%
North Dakota $271.4 $283.1 4.3% $305.1 7.8% $212.7 -30.3% $218.0 2.5% -19.7%
Ohio $5,311.4 $5,041.3 -5.1% $5,356.7 6.3% $4,791.7 -10.5% $4,315.0 -9.9% -18.8%
Oklahoma $1,099.7 $957.1 -13.0% $839.6 -12.3% $728.8 -13.2% $618.9 -15.1% -43.7%
Oregon $1,327.9 $1,233.8 -7.1% $1,750.4 41.9% $1,590.4 -9.1% $1,272.9 -20.0% -4.1%
Pennsylvania $7,505.1 $6,834.0 -8.9% $7,453.0 9.1% $6,383.7 -14.3% $6,324.0 -0.9% -15.7%
Rhode Island $820.8 $853.2 3.9% $933.3 9.4% $459.3 -50.8% $316.0 -31.2% -61.5%
South Carolina $3,318.7 $3,488.9 5.1% $3,387.0 -2.9% $2,608.0 -23.0% $2,538.6 -2.7% -23.5%
South Dakota $81.3 $70.7 -13.1% $96.0 35.8% $102.8 7.1% $84.0 -18.3% 3.4%
Tennessee $6,820.7 $6,498.6 -4.7% $7,426.8 14.3% $6,020.1 -18.9% $5,334.4 -11.4% -21.8%
Texas $22,807.3 $21,417.8 -6.1% $21,302.9 -0.5% $16,407.1 -23.0% $15,834.4 -3.5% -30.6%
Utah $1,227.9 $1,216.1 -1.0% $1,146.1 -5.8% $1,013.3 -11.6% $973.6 -3.9% -20.7%
Vermont $280.8 $219.9 -21.7% $221.0 0.5% $177.4 -19.7% $175.5 -1.1% -37.5%
Virginia $2,464.8 $2,175.2 -11.8% $2,202.6 1.3% $2,065.2 -6.2% $1,993.1 -3.5% -19.1%
Washington $4,040.7 $3,511.3 -13.1% $3,799.8 8.2% $3,350.7 -11.8% $3,124.7 -6.7% -22.7%
West Virginia $260.6 $283.6 8.8% $312.5 10.2% $202.8 -35.1% $195.5 -3.6% -25.0%
Wisconsin $2,141.4 $1,898.2 -11.4% $2,218.8 16.9% $1,969.8 -11.2% $1,995.4 1.3% -6.8%
Wyoming $101.9 $116.4 14.3% $98.7 -15.2% $90.2 -8.6% $56.8 -37.0% -44.2%
Total $192,570.4 $174,779.0 -9.2% $190,842.0 9.2% $162,641.9 -14.8% $161,109.9 -0.9% -16.3%
Table 6
U.S. Imports: May 2019 - May 2020
Year-over-Year (in millions $ USD)
State May 2019 May 2020
Percent Change
May 2019 /
May 2020
Wyoming $334.5 $56.8 -83.0%
Hawaii $392.1 $83.9 -78.6%
Michigan $12,893.0 $3,565.1 -72.3%
Rhode Island $1,000.5 $316.0 -68.4%
New Hampshire $1,094.4 $445.5 -59.3%
Montana $484.6 $222.7 -54.0%
Delaware $939.5 $508.4 -45.9%
Oklahoma $1,142.2 $618.9 -45.8%
Louisiana $3,047.6 $1,702.6 -44.1%
North Dakota $378.5 $218.0 -42.4%
Maryland $3,071.3 $1,784.1 -41.9%
Texas $26,622.8 $15,834.4 -40.5%
Vermont $291.8 $175.5 -39.9%
Colorado $1,131.9 $720.8 -36.3%
Alabama $2,480.5 $1,594.9 -35.7%
Mississippi $1,546.6 $998.4 -35.4%
New Jersey $11,152.9 $7,272.5 -34.8%
New Mexico $428.0 $286.3 -33.1%
Minnesota $2,685.4 $1,827.2 -32.0%
South Carolina $3,698.9 $2,538.6 -31.4%
Tennessee $7,772.3 $5,334.4 -31.4%
Missouri $1,868.4 $1,290.0 -31.0%
West Virginia $281.0 $195.5 -30.4%
Washington $4,484.9 $3,124.7 -30.3%
Alaska $238.3 $167.3 -29.8%
Iowa $932.5 $654.8 -29.8%
Florida $7,146.7 $5,069.6 -29.1%
Ohio $5,984.0 $4,315.0 -27.9%
Virginia $2,659.7 $1,993.1 -25.1%
California $36,047.0 $27,191.5 -24.6%
South Dakota $111.1 $84.0 -24.4%
Pennsylvania $8,359.3 $6,324.0 -24.3%
Georgia $9,013.6 $6,858.0 -23.9%
Kansas $1,072.5 $816.1 -23.9%
Illinois $14,029.3 $10,877.8 -22.5%
Utah $1,249.3 $973.6 -22.1%
Oregon $1,604.7 $1,272.9 -20.7%
Nebraska $345.3 $276.9 -19.8%
Kentucky $4,863.7 $3,930.0 -19.2%
Arkansas $707.1 $590.1 -16.5%
Wisconsin $2,304.6 $1,995.4 -13.4%
North Carolina $4,678.6 $4,099.5 -12.4%
Nevada $1,117.5 $999.9 -10.5%
Connecticut $1,538.1 $1,378.6 -10.4%
Arizona $2,205.8 $2,126.4 -3.6%
Massachusetts $3,086.7 $3,013.8 -2.4%
Indiana $5,395.3 $5,268.9 -2.3%
Maine $329.8 $328.5 -0.4%
Idaho $492.6 $594.4 20.7%
New York $11,559.6 $19,194.2 66.0%
U.S. Average -28.6%
References

1 "Trade Set to Plunge as COVID-19 Pandemic Upends Global Economic, World Trade Organization, accessed July 14, 2020, https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm.

2 "U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services," U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, accessed July 14, 2020, https://www.bea.gov/news/2020/us-international-trade-goods-and-services-may-2020.